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翻译英语句子方法

作者: 营养餐菜谱   来源营养餐菜谱    发布时间2019-04-14

  由于英汉两种语言在积句成篇的规则和习惯上的差异,翻译时往往要对原语句子进行分。分的基本原则是以命题所构成的主谓结构为单位。下面小编就跟你们详细介绍下翻译英语句子方法,希望对你们有用。

  翻译英语句子方法如下:

  其基本过程是:将原文分成一个个命题,并将命题重新组成主谓结构小句来翻译成译语,并按译语积句成篇的规则加以整合。分之后,尤其要注意分出来的各个小句之间的逻辑关系,在翻译表达时,用译语的约束机制进行积句成篇。

  英语分时可以按下列标记进行:限定动词,从句标志词,非谓语动词,独立主格,介词短语,形容词和副词(主要是小品副词和adj+ly副词)。

  汉语分时可以按动词、形容词、介词来分。

  名家翻译

  (1)(a)She was small and slight in person; (b)pale, (c)sandy-haired, and (d)with eyes habitually cast down: (e)when they looked up (f)they were very large, (g)odd, and (h)attractive, (i)so attractive, (j)that the Reverend Mr. Crisp, (k)fresh from Ox ford, and (l)curate (m)to the Vicar of Chiswick, (n)the Reverend Mr. Flowerdew, (o)fell in love with Miss Sharp. (W.M. Thackeray:Vanity Fair)

  (a)她身量瘦小,(b)脸色苍白,(c)头发是淡黄色的。(d)她惯常低眉垂目,(e)抬起眼来看人的时候,(g)眼睛显得很特别,(f)不但大,(h)而且动人。(n)契息克的弗拉沃丢牧师(m)手下有一个副牧师,(l)名叫克里斯波,(k)刚从牛津大学毕业,(j)竟(i)因此(o)爱上了她。

  译析:原文为一句,可分出15个命题。译文也也保留了15个命题,因此,保持了原文的内容的完整性,译文分成三个句子,主要信息命题句(a-e和o)保持原文顺序。试比较:修改后的译文。

  (a)她身量瘦小,(b)脸色苍白,(c)头发是淡黄色的。(d)她惯常低眉垂目,(e)抬起眼来看人的时候,(f)眼睛显得很大,(g)很特别,(h)很动人,(i)动人得(j)就连克里斯波牧师也(o)爱上了她。克里斯波(l)是(n)契息克的弗拉沃丢牧师(m)手下的一个副牧师,(k)刚从牛津大学毕业。

  (2)(a)A fearful man, (b)all in coarse grey, (c)with a great iron on his leg. (d)A man with no hat, and (e)with (f)broken shoes, and (g)with an old rag tied round his head. (h)A man who had been soaked in water, and (i)smothered(j) in mud, and (k)lamed by stones, and (l)cut by flints, and (m)stung by nettles, and (n)torn by briars; (o)who limped, and (p)shivered, and (q)glared and (r)growled; and (s)whose teeth chattered in his head (t)as he seized me by the chin.(Charles Dickens: Expectations)

  (a)好一个可怕的人!(b)穿一身灰色粗布衣服,(c)腿上拴一副大铁镣。(d)头上也不戴一顶帽子,(g)只裹着一块破布,(f)一双鞋子破烂不堪。(h)他刚在水里泡过,(j)满头满脸都是烂泥,(i)闷得他透不过气来;(k)两条腿给乱石堆子绊得一瘸一拐,(l)给碎石片儿划出一条条创痕,(m)给荨麻戳得疼痛难挨,(n)给荆棘扯得皮开肉裂;(o)走起来高一脚低一脚,(p)一边走一边抖,(q)又瞪眼又(r)咆哮。他赶过来,(t)一手抓住我的下巴,(s)一口牙齿捉对儿厮打。(王科一译)

  译析:此段有三个非主谓句,特点是:定语+名词(+定语)。这种句式起环境烘托的作用,汉译时一般采用分法和移位法,将英语 “定语+中心词”结构译为汉语描写句句式:主语+描写性谓语。

  举一反三

  一、分原则

  分法的总原则是分后各个小句能保持原语顺序尽量保持。如果因保持原语顺序而导致不符合译语语法习惯或意思不明时,则必须加以移位。

  二、分技巧

  (一)英译汉

  1.单词分

  1)名词分成句子

  (1)A movie of me leaving that foxhole would look like a shell leaving a rifle.

  我离开那个单人掩体速度之快,要是拍成电影的话,会象出膛的子弹一样。

  (2) Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul.

  岁月悠悠,肌肤易衰老;热忱消却,灵魂更易颓唐。

  2)形容词或定语分为句

  形容词或定语分为句的原则:

  英语:adj+NP

  汉语: NP(, (这)(NP)是+)adj+(的)。

  (1)I returned home, and suffered all the afternoon; suffered all through an unconscious and unrefreshing dinner.

  我回到家里,折腾了整个下午;折腾了整个晚餐,晚餐无滋无味,了无感觉。

  (2) There were the same mountains and the same lovely valley at their商丘癫痫病那里能够治疗好 feet.

  山还是那些山,山脚下,谿还是那条谿,依然那么秀美。

  翻译赏析

  In the garden the sparrow chants—a desultory second courtship, a subdued passion, in keeping with the great heat, love in summertime, relaxed and languorous.

  花园里,麻雀啾啾——仿佛是再度寻爱,懒心无肠;仿佛是盛夏才有的情愫,热而不烈;仿佛是夏日之爱,让人轻松,也让人倦慵。

  译析:原句中desultory和subdued作定语,汉译时移位于谓语,从而分成小句来翻译。同时采用易格而译的技巧通过增益“放佛”将原文破折号后的暗喻译为明喻。3)小品副词或派生副词adj+ly分为句:

  英语小品副词和修饰整个句子的副词,汉译时可以按下列规则分成句子。

  小品副词分格式:

  英语:NP+小品副词

  汉语:NP+谓语

  Adj+ly副词分格式:

  英语:(1)adj+ly+S +…V…(=It is (was) adj that S+V)

  汉语:1) S+V (,(这/那)是+)adj+(的)。

  2)无主句,+S+V。

  3)形容词+“的”是+S+V

  描写性派生副词分格式:

  英语:S+V...adj+ly

  汉语:主语+谓语, 名词+adj

  (1)My head kept humming, “A blue trip slip for an eight-cent fare, a buff trip slip for a six-cent fare,” and so on and so on, without peace or respite.

  脑海里不断地轰鸣着“蓝色票,八分钱;黄色票,六分钱,” 如此反复,从不间断,没有片刻的安宁,没有片刻的稍息。

  (2)No judgment can be rightly formed either of my method or of the discoveries to which it leads, by means of anticipations (that is to say, of the reasoning which is now in use); since I cannot be called on to abide by the sentence of a tribunal which is itself on trial.

  用臆测(即现行的推理)来对我的方法或者由此得出的发现加以评判,那是不恰当的;因为一个自身正在接受审判的法庭,是不能强迫我去服从它所做出的判决。

  (3)Amelia took the news very palely and calmly.(William, Makepeace Thackeray:Vanity Fair)

  爱米利亚得信的时候,颜色苍白,样子倒很镇静。

  拓展练习1

  翻译下列句子,注意斜体字词的分。

  (1)That region was the most identifiable trouble spot.

  (2)The first is (the ambition)of those who desire to extend their own power in their native country, a vulgar and degenerate kind (of ambition).

  (3)They, not surprisingly, did not respond at all.

  (4) Constitutionally, Putin was to offer up a progress report at this yearly address.

  (5)We cannot politely turn down their invitation.

  (6)Japan tries vainly to blame us for the breakdown of the China-Japan relations.

  2.非谓语短语分法

  1)分词短语分成句子

  分词分理据与原则:英语中任何分词都可以找到其逻辑主语,这样,逻辑主语和分词便构成一个主谓结构。这个主谓位结构翻译成汉语自然就构成了句子。

  分词短语分原则:

  英语:(逻辑主语)… +分词短语(V+ing, V+ed)

  汉语:(逻辑主语)… +动词短语。

  (1) I was a mile from Thornfield, in a lane noted for wild roses in summer,for nuts and blackberries in autumn,and even now possessing a coral treasures in hips and haws.

  我此时离桑菲尔德还有一英里的路程,正走在一条小径上,这条小径夏天以野蔷薇闻名,秋天以坚果和黑莓著称,即使是现在,小径上也还长有一些珊瑚珍宝般的野蔷薇果和山楂。

  (2)The days of his youth appeared like dreams before him, and he recalled the serious moment when his father placed him at the entrance of the two roads——one leading to a peaceful, sunny place, covered with flowers, fruits and resounding with soft, sw咸宁治疗癫痫eet songs; the other leading to a deep, dark cave, which was endless, where poison flowed instead of water and where devils and poisonous snakes hissed and crawled.

  青春年华如梦一般浮现眼前,老人想起了人生的关键时刻,他的父亲将他放在人生岔路口:一条通往祥和明媚的地方,那里花香果甜,歌声婉转;一条通向黑暗幽深的洞穴,那里深不可测,到处毒液横流,不见清水,四处恶魔肆虐,毒蛇嘶嘶爬行。

  翻译赏析

  For everyone (besides the errors common to human nature in general) has a cave or den of his own, which refracts and discolors the light of nature, owing either to his own proper and peculiar nature; or to his education and conversation with others; or to the reading of books, and the authority of those whom he esteems and admires; or to the differences of impressions, accordingly as they take place in a mind preoccupied and predisposed or in a mind indifferent and settled; or the like.(Francis Bacon)

  因为每一个人(人性共有的错误除外)都有自己的洞穴,从而扭曲改变自然的本色,这要么归咎于他固有的特性,要么归咎于他所受的教育程度以及与他人的社会交往;或者是归咎于他所阅读的书籍以及他所尊敬钦佩的权威;或者是归咎于因人而异的印象:有的人心有成见、胸中有数;有的人冷漠麻木、冥顽不化等等。(分词和形容词分为句)

  译析:句中which为关系词,译为“这”指代中心词,四个(owning) to 介词短语易为动词与“refracts and discolors the light of nature”搭配,从而分出四个小句“要么......要么......;或者......或者......”。句中分词和形容词preoccupied, predisposed,indifferent和settled与mind分别分成四个小句。

  拓展练习2

  翻译下列句子,注意斜体字词的分。

  (1) In sciences founded on opinions and dogmas, the use of anticipations and logic is good; for in them the object is to command assent to the proposition, not to master the thing.

  (2)What seems to come nearest to one is that of the waterspouts, often seen in the voyage over the Atlantic Ocean toward either of the Indies.

  (3)Sunrays filtered in wherever they could, driving out darkness and choking the shadows.

  2)同位语名词短语分成句子

  同位语分的理据与原则:英语中本位语和同位语可以是名词(短语)也可以是句子;但翻译时要把同位语分成句子,同位语必须是一个带有定语的名词短语或句子,这样同位语才能分成句子。图示如下:

  同位语短语分成句:

  英语: NP1(S) (“,”、“――”、“:”、“namely, that is, vz.”) +attr+NP2+(attr).

  汉语: NP1(S), (这/所谓)(NP1(S))是+attr+NP2+(的)。

  (3)The last time I tried to purify myself by fire, I managed to acquire a zoo in the process and am still supporting it and carrying heavy pails of water to the animals, a task that is sometimes beyond my strength.

  上一次想法用火烧来净化自己时,我总算弄到了一个动物园,至今都还维持着那个动物园,挑着沉重的水桶给动物喂水,这活儿有时还真让我吃不消。

  翻译赏析

  The U.S. Chamber of Commerce is pressing Congress to lift cold war trade restrictions on Russia, a country Romney has labeled America’s “No. 1 geopolitical foe.”

  美国商会正在向国会施压要求解除对俄罗斯的冷战式贸易限制,而罗姆尼却给俄罗斯贴上了“第一地缘政治敌人”的标签。

  译析:a country Romney has labeled America’s “No. 1 geopolitical foe.”是其Russsia的同位语,翻译时分为小句,同时增益连接词“而”。

  3)介词短语分成句子

  介词短语的理据与原则:英语介词分为两种:虚义介词和实义介词。虚义介词本身无意义(in, on, at),只有和名词(短语)才能构成实义,因此,翻译时,虚义介词本身无法分成句,只能分其中的名词(短语);实义介词往往含有动词含义,翻译只要找到实义介词的逻辑主语就可以分成句子。

  介词短语分成句:

  英语:(逻辑主语)… +介哪家医院治疗癫痫最专业词+NP

  汉语:(逻辑主语)… +动词+NP。

  (3) Tired from my run and the Texas heat, I got a cup of water and sat under a tree with the dog.

  因为跑步再加上德克萨斯的炎热的天气,我感到很累,我要了杯水,挨着狗狗坐在树下。

  (4) Forty-two years ago, on my maiden voyage in the family car with my mother in the passenger seat, I accidentally hit a dog. On Easter Sunday.

  四十二年前,我开着家轿和坐在副驾位的母亲开始了我的处女行,途中我意外地撞倒了一条狗。那天正好是复活节。

  4)独立主格分为句:

  所谓独立主格,是指英语中带有自己主语的非限制性从句,从意思上看,仍然是相对完整。故汉译时可以分成句子。

  独立主格结构分成句:

  英语:Np+adj/小品副词/pp/participle/动词不定式/同位语

  汉语:Np+谓语

  (5)When Miss Emily Grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral: the men through a sort of respectful affection for a fallen monument, the women mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her house.

  艾米莉·格里尔逊小姐走了,我们全镇的人都去为她送葬:男人们出于一种崇敬之情,因为一座丰碑倒塌了;女人们大多出于好奇之心,想进屋子看看究竟。

  翻译赏析

  (a)The mornings are the pleasantest times in the apartment, (b)exhaustion having set in, (c)the sated mosquitoes at rest on ceiling and walls, (d)sleeping it off, (e)the room a swirl of tortured bedclothes and abandoned garments, (f)the vines in their full leafiness filtering the hard light of day, (g)the air conditioner silent at last, (h)like the mosquitoes. ( 2012,《第三界<英语世界>杯翻译比赛英译汉原文》)

  清晨呆在公寓里很是惬意;倦慵袭身;饱餐的蚊子停在屋顶和墙上休憩打盹,房间里全是卷裹皱褶的床单、废弃的外衣;藤蔓青青繁茂,遮挡着白日的强光,空调就像蚊子一样,终于安静了下来。

  译析:英语中的独立主格结构,具有静态描写,补充信息的作用。本句可分为8个小句,其中(a)为主句,(b) (-(g)为独立主格结构,表示静态描写,翻译时翻译成汉语的描写小句。

  5)从句标志处分为

  (6)Yet surely (a)it is not fair (b)that the credit of true history should be lessened (c)because it has sometimes been injured and wronged by fables. (Francis Bacon:The New Organon)

  当然,(c)真正的历史有时因受到寓言的中伤,从而(b)导致声誉受损,(a)这的确很不公平。

  (7) (a)Nay, (b)it is obvious (c)that when a man runs the wrong way, (d) the more active and swift he is, (e)the further he will go astray. (Francis Bacon:The New Organon)

  (a)非但如此,(c)人一旦走上歧途,(d)步伐越加快捷,(e)就迷失得就越加遥远。(b)这是显而易见的事。

  翻译赏析

  (1) (a)It was hard (b)for me to accept (c)that it had mostly been about sex for him, (d)that and some damsel-in-distress fantasy (e)I seemed to have dispelled, (f)because I think (g)it’s possible (h)that he did care for me at some point.

  此句可以分为6个小句。其中(a)与(f)构成因果关系,因此,翻译时将(a)句后移尽量靠近(f)句,这样(f)表示的原因就清晰起来。(c)和(d)属于 (a)句accept并列的宾语从句,翻译时,在每一个宾语从句前增益谓语动词“很难接受”;(e)属于定语从句,(g)属于(f)think的宾语从句,(h)是主语从句。试比较下列译文:

  译文一:如果说自己顶多就是他的一个性伴侣,(如果)说我的幻想——那种只有多愁善感的少女才有的幻想——仿佛已悄然而失,我很难接受,因为我觉得他在某些方面可能还是很关心我的。

  译文二:回想起和他一起的日子,我能想到的都是一些和性有关的记忆,这让我难以接受。一些女性特有的被保护感从我身上逐渐消失,因为在某种程度上他还是在意我的。

  (2) (a)Days would pass and (b)I’d grit my teeth (c)to avoid picking up the phone, (d)like an addict in rehab; (e)it felt (f)as if toxins were slowly leaving my body.

  此句可分为6湖北癫痫病医院怎么样个小句。其中(e)中的it指代整个(e)小句,(f)小句中were...leaving my body表示对将来的假设,带有目的的含义。是比较下列两个译文

  译文一:日子一天天地过去,我咬牙强忍着不去接电话,就像吸毒者戒毒一般,仿佛要让毒瘾慢慢地离开我的身体。

  译文二:日子总会过去,我咬紧牙关,不去接电话,像吸毒者一样;那感觉就像毒液从我身体里慢慢散去一样。

  拓展练习3

  翻译下列句子,注意斜体字词的分

  (1) The station chief would have to be close to the director,a member of the inner circle.

  (2) The military is forbidden to “kill” the vessel, a relatively easy task.

  (3) He arrived in Washington at a ripe moment internationally.

  (4)Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, a universally accepted law.

  (5) Their power increased with their number.

  (二)汉译英

  汉语句子分,一般按照“主谓结构”、“定中结构”和句子变换来进行分。

  1.流水句各个小句分为独立句。

  流水句中各个小句如果内容较多,而且呈现并列叙述时,可以分为独立句。

  (1)(B611M)先进的战术地地导弹武器系统,用于精确打击装甲集群、部队集结地、防控设施、机场、指挥中心等各类地面军事目标,用于火力压制和火力支援。

  B611M is an advanced tactical ground-to-ground missile weapon system. It can precisely attack various types of ground military targets such as armored groups, troop concentration area, air defense facilities, airfields and command centers. It is mainly used for fire suppression and fire support.

  2.连动句分为两个独立句子。

  (2)(a)张家窨子阁楼上的书房里,(b)顺庆油号老板张恒泰,正在(c)关着门(d)训斥自己的独生子张复礼。

  (a)In the Zhangs’ Yinzi house, (b)Zhang Hengtai, the boss of Shunqing Oil Company, (c)shut himself up in the study of the attic. (d)He was tongue-lashing his only son Zhang Fuli.

  试比较:

  In the Zhangs’ Yinzi house, Zhang Hengtai, the boss of Shunqing Oil Company, was tongue-lashing his only son Zhang Fuli in the study of the attic with the door closed.

  (3)(a)在此情况下,(b)我们重申关于支持增长和维护金融稳定的强烈承诺,(c)并强调发达经济体需要采取适当措施以重建信心,(d)促进增长并确保经济强劲复苏。

  (a)In such circumstances, (b)we reaffirm our strong commitment to support growth and foster financial stability. (c)We also underscore the need for appropriate action to be taken by advanced economies in order to rebuild confidence,(d) foster growth and secure a strong recovery.

  3.定语分为句或同位语

  (4) (a)身材魁梧的张复礼(b)栽着脑壳,(c)耷着眼皮,(d)一声不吭地(e)站在父亲跟前,(f)任凭数落。(李怀荪,2011《湘西秘史》)

  Zhang Fuli, (a)a burly-set young man, (e)were now standing (d)silently before his father, (b) with his head bowed and (c) his eyelids drooped, (f) letting himself at the mercy of his father’s scolding.

  4.小句主语变换处分为句

  (5)“你倒好,偏在这时候出了事,满浦阳镇传得个百丑,叫你老子怎么去跟刘家人交待?!”

  “But now you, you did such a foolish deed, and made it public in all parts of the Puyang Town. How do I give your father-in-law a proper explanation?!”

  5.动静转换处分为句。

  我的母亲很高兴,但也藏着许多凄凉的神情,教我坐下,歇息,喝茶,且不谈搬家的事。(鲁迅,《故乡》)

  Though Mother was delighted,she was also trying to hide a certain feeling of sadness.She told me to sit down and rest and have some tea

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